The complicated structure and character of the verb has given rise to much dispute and controversy. The morphological field of the English verb heterogeneous. It includes a number of groups or classes of verbs, which differ from each other in their morphological and syntactic properties.

All English verbs have finite and non-finite forms.

The finite verb invariably performs the function of the verb- predicate. Finite verbs are subdivided into regular and irregular depending on the way the participle II are formed.

Non-finite verbs perform different functions according to their intermediary nature (subject, object, adverbial modifier, attribute). They may be used as any member of the sentence but the predicate. Inside the sentence verbals make up complexes with other members of the sentence.

The English verbids include four forms:

the Infinitive

the Gerund

the Present Participle

the Past Participle

THE INFINITIVE

The infinitive is the non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties of the verb with those of the noun, serving as the verbal name of a process.

The infinitive is used in three fundamentally different types of functions:

as a notional, self-positional syntactic part of the sentence

as the notional constituent of a complex verbal predicate built up around a predicator verb

as the notional constituent of a finite conjugation of the verb

THE GERUND

The gerund is the non-finite form of the verb which, like the infinitive, combines the properties of the verb with those of the noun. Similar to the infinitive, the gerund serves as the verbal name of the process, but its substantive quality is more strongly pronounced than that of the infinitive. Namely, as different from the infinitive, and similar to the noun, the gerund can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or its pronominal equivalents (expressing the subject of the verbal process), and it can be used with prepositions.

The general combinability of the gerund, like that of the infinitive, is dual, sharing some features with the verb, and some features with the noun. The verb type combinability of the gerund is displayed in its combining:

with nouns expressing the object of the action

with modifying adverbs

with certain semi-functional predicator verbs, but other than modal

of the noun type is the combinability of the gerund:

with finite notional verbs as the object of the action

with finite notional verbs...

as the prepositional adjunct of various functions

with finite notional verbs as the subject of the action

with nouns as the prepositional adjunct of various functions.

The gerund, in the corresponding positional patterns, performs the functions of all the types of notional sentence-parts:

the subject

the predicative

the object

the attribute

the adverbial modifier

Like the infinitive, the gerund is categorically changeable. It distinguishes the two grammatical categories, sharing them with the finite verb and the present participle:

the category of retrospective coordination (perfect in opposition)

the category of voice (passive in opposition)

Consequently, the categorical paradigm of the gerund of the objective verb includes four forms:

the simple active (taking)

the perfect active (having taken)

the simple passive (being taken)

the perfect passive (having been taken)

The gerundial paradigm of the non-objective verbs, correspondingly, includes two forms:

the simple active (going)

the perfect active (having gone)

THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE

The present participle is the non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties of the verb with those of the adjective and adverb, serving as the qualifying-processual name. In its outer form the present participle distinguishes the same grammatical categories with gerund as retrospective coordination and voice.

The verb-type combinability of the present participle is revealed:

in its being combined with nouns expressing the object of the action

with nouns expressing the subject of the action

with modifying adverbs

with auxiliary finite verbs (word-morphemes) in the analytical form of the verb.

The adjective-type combinability of the present participle is revealed in its association with the modified nouns as well as with some modifying adverbs such as adverbs of degree.

The adverb-type combinability of the present participle is revealed in its association with the modified verbs

The self-positional present participle, in the proper syntactic arrangements, performs the functions:

the predicative (occasional use, and not with the pure link BE)

the attribute

the adverbial modifier of various types.

THE PAST PARTICIPLE

The past participle is the non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties of the verb with those of the adjective, serving as the qualifying processual name. It is a single form, having no paradigm of its own. It conveys implicitly the categorial meaning of the perfect and the passive. The main functions in the sentence are those of the attribute and the predicative.



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Non-Finite Forms (Verbids)