Native are words of anglo-saxon origin brought to the English islands from the continent in the 5-th cent by the Germ. tribes (angles, saxons).
Borrowings-the term is used to denote the process of adopting words from other languages and also the result of this process- the lang. material itself.
It has been studied that not only words, but word-building affixes were borrowed into English (able, ment)
Some word-groups were borrowed of their foreign form (tet-a-tet)
Translation loans — are words and expressions, formed from the material, available in the language after the patterns characteristics of the given language , but under the influence of some foreign words and expressions.
Semantic borrowing is the appearance of new meaning due to the influence related words in other lan/
Source of b. — is appliede to the lang from which particular words were taken into Engl.
Original b. — the term is applied to the language the word may be traced to.
Latin b. are classified into 4 subgroups: Early Latin loans, Later b. (7th cent AD), The 3d period (Norman-French b.) Latest stratum of Latin words — international words.
Norman-French subdiv: Early loans 12-15 cent, later loans 16 cent.
Russian b: before the October revolution,after.
Assimilation — the process of the changing of the adopted words. A. of thr borrowings includes changes in: sound form, morphological strct, grammar charact-s, usage.
Completely assimilated b. — are the words which have undergone all types of A. Such words are frequent and stylistically neutral. They may occur as dominant words in synonymic groups. They are active in word formation.
Partially assim-d b. — the words which lack one of the types of A. They are subdivided into:
- b. not ass-d grammatically (nouns borrowed from Latin or Greek)
- b. not ass-d phonetically (contain peculiarities in stress, not standard for English)
- barbarisms — words from other lang. , used by English people in conversations or writing, but not assimilated in any way, for which there are corresponding English equivalents.
Why are words borrowed?
- Wars, conquests
- trade, international and cultural relations
- to fill the gap in vocabulary
- words, which express some particular notion
- enrichment of word groups (syn., ant…)
Semantic adaptation is adjustment to the system of meaning of...
vocabulary. Sometimes a word may be borrowed blindly without the aim.
E.G. large (Fr. «wide») managed to establish itself very firmly in Engl. voc. and got the meaning «big».
International words — As the process of borrowing is mostly connected with the appearance of new notions which the loan words serve to express, it is natural that the borrowing is seldom limited to one language. Words of identical origin that occur in several languages as a result of simultaneous or successive borrowings from one ultimate source are called international words.
Most of them are of Latin and Greek origin. Most names of sciences, terms of art, political terms are international.
Etymological doublets (or, by ellipsis, simply doublets) are two or more words of the same language which were derived by different routes from the same basic word.
Examples are whole (in the old sense of ‘healthy’ or ‘free from disease’) and hale. The latter has survived in its original meaning and is preserved in the phrase hale and hearty. Both come from OE hah the one by the normal development of OE a into 6, the other from a northern dialect in which this modification did not take place. Similarly there are the doublets raid and road, their relationship remains clear in the term inroad which means ‘a hostile incursion’, ‘a raid’.The verbs drag and draw both come from OE dragan.
Etymological triplets- 3 words have common route.
A dublet can consist of a shortened words. (history-story)
To sum up this brief treatment of loan words it is necessary to stress t in studying loan words a linguist cannot be content with establish-the source, the date of penetration, the semantic sphere to which word belonged and the circumstances of the process of borrowing, these are very important, but one should also be concerned with the iges the new language system into which the loan word penetrates :es in the word itself, and, on the other hand, look for the changes sioned by the newcomer in the English vocabulary, when in finding vay into the new language it pushed some of its lexical neighbours e. In the discussion above we have tried to show the importance of problem of conformity with the patterns typical of the receiving ;uage and its semantic needs.