Modern English Word formation

Word formation is a branch of science of the language which studies the patterns on which a language forms new lexical items (new unities, new words). Word formation is a process of forming words by combining root & affixal morphemes.

2 major groups of word formation: 1) words, formed as grammatical syntagmas, combinations of full linguistic signs (types: compounding (словосложение), prefixation, suffixation, conversion, back derivation).
2) words, which are not grammatical syntagmas, which are not made up of full linguistic signs. Ex.: expressive symbolism, blending, clipping, rhyme & some others.

Different types of word formation:

– COMPOUNDING is joining together 2 or more stems.
Types: 1) without a connecting element (headache, heartbreak); 2) with a vowel or consonant as a linking element (speedometer, craftsman); 3) with a preposition or conjunction as a linking element down-and-out (опустошенный) son-in-law.
– PREFIXATION Prefixes are such particles that can be prefixed to full words. But are themselves not with independent existence.
– SUFFIXATION A suffix is a derivative final element which is or was productive in forming new words. It has semantic value, but doesn’t occur as an independent speech use.
– CONVERSION (zero derivation) A certain stem is used for the formation of a categorically different word without a derivative element being added.(Bag – to bag)
– BACK DERIVATION is deraving a new word, which is morphologically simpler from a more complex word.  ( A babysitter – to babysit     Television – to televise)
– PHONETIC SYMBOLISM is using characteristic speech sounds for name giving. Very often we imitate by the speech sounds what we hear: (tinkle, splash, t).
– CLIPPING Consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts.     ( Mathematics – maths)
– BLENDING is blending part of two words to form one word  ( Smoke + fog = smog)

Morphological structure in english.
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