Synonyms, antonyms, homonyms and their types

Synonyms are words different in their outer aspects, but identical or similar in their inner aspects. In English there are a lot of synonyms, because there are many borrowings. There are some absolute synonyms in […]

Semantic change

There are many causes of semantic change: 1) Historical causes. According to historical principle, everything develops changes, social institutions change in the course of time,

Modern English Word formation

Word formation is a branch of science of the language which studies the patterns on which a language forms new lexical items (new unities, new words). Word formation is a process of forming words by […]

Latin borrowings

Latin, being the language of the Roman Empire, had already influenced the language of the Germanic tribes even before they set foot in Britain. Latin loanwords reflected the superior material culture of the Roman Empire, […]

Grammatical classes of words

The words of language, depending on various formal and semantic features, are divided into grammatically relevant sets or classes. The traditional grammatical classes or words are called «parts of speech». Words on the upper level […]


Lexicography is the study of the meaning, evolution, and function of the vocabulary units of a language for the purpose of compilation in book form-in short, the process of dictionary making. An encyclopedic dictionary typically […]

Phonetic Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices

The theory of sense — independence of separate sounds is based on a subjective interpretation of sound associations and has nothing to do with objective scientific data. However, the sound of a word, or more […]

Classification of Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices

The expressive means of the language are studied respectively in manuals of phonetics, grammar, lexicology and stylistics. Stylistics, however, observes not only the nature of an expressive means, but also its potential capacity of becoming […]

General characteristics of the verb

According to content, verbs can be described as words denoting actions (e.g. to walk, to speak, to play), process (e.g. to sleep, to wait, to live), state (e.g. to be, to like, to know), relation […]

French borrowings

The Normans in England belonged to the Capetian dynasty spoke Norman French; this became non-prestigious in France as the variety spoken by the Angevian dynasty in France, Parisian French,


A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created («coined») — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. Neologisms are […]